Black masterbatch is produced using carbon black. Raw carbon black is a very difficult and dirty mixture that is dusty, lightweight and fluffy. Unless large-scale treatment measures are used, it will foul machines and workers and make the working environment dirty. Because of this, casters generally choose to finish carbon black predispersion on a resin carrier, that is, black masterbatch. This resin carrier is clean, free flowing and easy to use. In addition, apart from being dirty, carbon black also has a characteristic that it is difficult to perform dispersion. If the raw carbon black is melted directly during injection molding, the coloring effect will be very poor. The carbon black stripes and spots that have no dispersion will clearly show up next to the less colored areas. Standard injection molding machines cannot disperse carbon black effectively.
Carbon black, which is difficult to disperse, also confuses pigmented masterbatch producers. The high load black masterbatch produced using single or double screw extruders has very poor dispersibility. When the end user mixes or molds these black masterbatches, its performance is only slightly better than carbon black, but the effect is equally unsatisfactory. In order to achieve a stable high degree of dispersion, a high-level shearing mixer must be used to mix carbon black, such as a mixture of FCM or BANBURY. With sufficient strength, these mixers can completely mix the carbon black with the base resin. The type of carbon black used also affects the dispersibility. The smaller the carbon black particles, the harder the dispersion is.
The application of thin wax is the most demanding of the dispersion requirements. The final product of poorly dispersed masterbatch can be easily seen by the naked eye from the corners. In addition to the lack of beauty, the poor dispersion of carbon black in the film significantly reduced the weathering resistance of the black film. Small particles with good dispersibility are the main features of the fiber industry. These fibers are used in ropes, yarns, carpets and other industries. Large machines simultaneously produce 30,000 strands of fiber at a speed of more than 5,000 meters per minute. If the dispersion of the masterbatch is too bad, it will break the fiber and cause production stoppages.
The second factor that determines the quality of black masterbatch is the coverage. This factor is especially important for masterbatches for scrap or recycled polymers. In these cases, the role of black is to cover the scrap. In other colors. Large-particle carbon blacks have poor coloring capabilities and do not easily cover all other underlying colors. As a result, the final product is only deviated from the color. In the melting process, the ability to properly select the carbon black with high coloring ability to cover the existing color is the so-called covering power.
The third factor that determines the quality of the black masterbatch is the rheology and fluidity. If a masterbatch itself has good dispersibility, but it cannot flow into the material to be molded, the effect of the production is not ideal. In general, the base resin used to produce the masterbatch has a higher rheology. In order to save costs, some masterbatch manufacturers use reusable materials, scrap or recycled materials as resin carriers. The flow properties of the masterbatches thus produced will be significantly reduced, and if the rheology is not good, the foundry labor union will have troubles in the cycle time and appearance. It is worth noting that if the dispersibility and rheology are not high, some end-users will compensate by increasing the dilution ratio, but this practice will only increase the use of masterbatch. The masterbatch with the smallest dilution yields a uniform, well-dispersed black color.
The compatibility is the fourth factor that determines the quality of the black masterbatch. If the masterbatch is produced using swarf or recycled material, it may contain contaminants or other non-meltable polymers. This will cause some unforeseen and difficult constraints, wasting final consumers' time and raw materials. At this time, the base resin can be selected to produce high-quality masterbatch, and the masterbatch has good compatibility in the melting process. High-quality masterbatches can be produced using LLDPE, LDPE, HDPE, PP, PS, SAN, PA and other materials. If engineering grade and stringent physical properties have been noted, special polymer masterbatches can be obtained. Several international large-scale masterbatch manufacturers are conducting research to produce so-called "global universal" masterbatches. These masterbatches can be widely compatible with other raw materials, have good rheology, and can be applied flexibly.
Stability must be consistent In today's international economy, it is absolutely necessary that international customers have high demands on the quality of masterbatch and the stability of raw materials, which is also the fifth factor that determines the quality of black masterbatch. One of the main manifestations of stability is the smooth carbon black ratio. If the percentage of carbon black is fluctuating, the amount of masterbatch that needs to be melted is not the same, and it is impossible to produce a product with the same hue. Some end-users have reported that the dilution ratios required by the chemicals are usually 5-8% different, depending on how much material the masterbatch manufacturer has put into production. Obviously this is unacceptable. Of course, other factors such as the fluidity and dispersibility of the injected melt should be consistent with the amount of each batch.
The final factor in determining the quality of the black masterbatch is the shade of the color. There are various types of carbon black on the market that can be used for the coloring of masterbatches, but the colors and prices of various types are also quite different. Large particle carbon black has a lower degree of coloration and a different background color than small particle carbon black. Large-particle masterbatches are suitable for the production of bags such as garbage bags, but are not suitable for the production of aesthetically pleasing products such as TV signs or areas where UV protection is required, such as agricultural films or external pipes. For these products, only the higher-priced, small-particle carbon blacks are used. In addition, low transparency is also a characteristic of small particle carbon black.
Classification and Application of Common Carbon Black SRF carbon black is generally used for the production of garbage bags that do not require strong coloring power, high coverage, or UV protection. Colors tend to be grayish blue, are inexpensive, and are relatively easy to disperse, so small manufacturers of masterbatches that are equipped with single or twin screw extruders will choose this carbon black. The particle size of HAF carbon black is half that of SRF carbon black particles, but its color intensity is twice that. Brownish red, its UV protection ability is obviously stronger than SRF carbon black, and the cost is lower than P carbon black. It has good coverage.
Can be applied in many ways.
P carbon black is used in UV protection applications and in the food industry. It is reddish blue.
JET carbon black has the most satisfactory color shade, deep, shiny black. Its particles are minimal, but they are not easy to disperse. Only those manufacturers equipped with high shear mixers can achieve consistent dispersion when using JET carbon black. It is also the most expensive of ordinary carbon black.
The cost comparison shows that the more expensive masterbatch can produce economically better results than the cheaper masterbatch. Why is this so? For example, a final producer buying masterbatches made with SRF carbon black contains 50% carbon black at a cost factor of 10 per kilogram, and he adds 8% of the masterbatch to the polymer to obtain the desired coloring effect; He can also choose to try HAF masterbatch with 45% carbon black, the same coloring effect, the cost factor per kilogram is 16. Because the color intensity of HAF carbon black is almost equal to twice that of SRF carbon black, it can significantly reduce the amount of masterbatch used.
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